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50 Years of Stupid Grammar Advice The Chronicle Review The Chronicle of Higher Education Premium Content Log In Create a Free Account Subscribe Now Monday January 3 2011 Subscribe Today Home News Opinion Ideas Facts Figures Topics Jobs Advice Forums Events The Chronicle Review Commentary Brainstorm Books Letters to the Editor Academic Destinations Campus Viewpoints The Chronicle Review HomeOpinion amp IdeasThe Chronicle Review E mail Print Share April 17 2009 50 Years of Stupid Grammar Advice By Geoffrey K Pullum April 16 is the 50th anniversary of the publication of a little book that is loved and admired throughout American academe Celebrations readings and toasts are being held and a commemorative edition has been released I won t be celebrating The Elements of Style does not deserve the enormous esteem in which it is held by American college graduates Its advice ranges from limp platitudes to inconsistent nonsense Its enormous influence has not improved American students grasp of English grammar it has significantly degraded it The authors won t be hurt by these critical remarks They are long dead William Strunk was a professor of English at Cornell about a hundred years ago and E B White later the much admired author of Charlotte s Web took English with him in 1919 purchasing as a required text the first edition which Strunk had published privately After Strunk s death White published a New Yorker article reminiscing about him and was asked by Macmillan to revise and expand Elements for commercial publication It took off like a rocket in 1959 and has sold millions This was most unfortunate for the field of English grammar because both authors were grammatical incompetents Strunk had very little analytical understanding of syntax White even less Certainly White was a fine writer but he was not qualified as a grammarian Despite the post 1957 explosion of theoretical linguistics Elements settled in as the primary vehicle through which grammar was taught to college students and presented to the general public and the subject was stuck in the doldrums for the rest of the 20th century Notice what I am objecting to is not the style advice in Elements which might best be described the way The Hitchhiker s Guide to the Galaxy describes Earth mostly harmless Some of the recommendations are vapid like Be clear how could one disagree Some are tautologous like Do not explain too much Explaining too much means explaining more than you should so of course you shouldn t Many are useless like Omit needless words The students who know which words are needless don t need the instruction Even so it doesn t hurt to lay such well meant maxims before novice writers Even the truly silly advice like Do not inject opinion doesn t really do harm No force on earth can prevent undergraduates from injecting opinion And anyway sometimes that is just what we want from them But despite the Style in the title much in the book relates to grammar and the advice on that topic does real damage It is atrocious Since today it provides just about all of the grammar instruction most Americans ever get that is something of a tragedy Following the platitudinous style recommendations of Elements would make your writing better if you knew how to follow them but that is not true of the grammar stipulations Use the active voice is a typical section head And the section in question opens with an attempt to discredit passive clauses that is either grammatically misguided or disingenuous We are told that the active clause I will always remember my first trip to Boston sounds much better than the corresponding passive My first visit to Boston will always be remembered by me It sure does But that s because a passive is always a stylistic train wreck when the subject refers to something newer and less established in the discourse than the agent the noun phrase that follows by For me to report that I paid my bill by saying The bill was paid by me with no stress on me would sound inane I m the utterer and the utterer always counts as familiar and well established in the discourse But that is no argument against passives generally The bill was paid by an anonymous benefactor sounds perfectly natural Strunk and White are denigrating the passive by presenting an invented example of it deliberately designed to sound inept After this unpromising start there is some fairly sensible style advice The authors explicitly say they do not mean that the writer should entirely discard the passive voice which is frequently convenient and sometimes necessary They give good examples to show that the choice between active and passive may depend on the topic under discussion Sadly writing tutors tend to ignore this moderation and simply red circle everything that looks like a passive just as Microsoft Word s grammar checker underlines every passive in wavy green to signal that you should try to get rid of it That overinterpretation is part of the damage that Strunk and White have unintentionally done But it is not what I am most concerned about here What concerns me is that the bias against the passive is being retailed by a pair of authors so grammatically clueless that they don t know what is a passive construction and what isn t Of the four pairs of examples offered to show readers what to avoid and how to correct it a staggering three out of the four are mistaken diagnoses At dawn the crowing of a rooster could be heard is correctly identified as a passive clause but the other three are all errors There were a great number of dead leaves lying on the ground has no sign of the passive in it anywhere It was not long before she was very sorry that she had said what she had also contains nothing that is even reminiscent of the passive construction The reason that he left college was that his health became impaired is presumably fingered as passive because of impaired but that s a mistake It s an adjective here Become doesn t allow a following passive clause Notice for example that A new edition became issued by the publishers is not grammatical These examples can be found all over the Web in study guides for freshman composition classes Try a Google search on great number of dead leaves lying I have been told several times by both students and linguistics faculty members about writing instructors who think every occurrence of be is to be condemned for being passive No wonder if Elements is their grammar bible It is typical for college graduates today to be unable to distinguish active from passive clauses They often equate the grammatical notion of being passive with the semantic one of not specifying the agent of an action They think a bus exploded is passive because it doesn t say whether terrorists did it The treatment of the passive is not an isolated slip It is typical of Elements The book s toxic mix of purism atavism and personal eccentricity is not underpinned by a proper grounding in English grammar It is often so misguided that the authors appear not to notice their own egregious flouting of its own rules They can t help it because they don t know how to identify what they condemn Put statements in positive form they stipulate in a section that seeks to prevent not from being used as a means of evasion Write with nouns and verbs not with adjectives and adverbs they insist The motivation of this mysterious decree remains unclear to me And then in the very next sentence comes a negative passive clause containing three adjectives The adjective hasn t been built that can pull a weak or inaccurate noun out of a tight place That s actually not just three strikes it s four because in addition to contravening positive form and active voice and nouns and verbs it has a relative clause that can pull removed from what it belongs with the adjective which violates another edict Keep related words together Keep related words together is further explained in these terms The subject of a sentence and the principal verb should not as a rule be separated by a phrase or clause that can be transferred to the beginning That is a negative passive containing an adjective with the subject separated from the principal verb by a phrase as a rule that could easily have been transferred to the beginning Another quadruple violation The book s contempt for its own grammatical dictates seems almost willful as if the authors were flaunting the fact that the rules don t apply to them But I don t think they are Given the evidence that they can t even tell actives from passives my guess would be that it is sheer ignorance They know a few terms like subject and verb and phrase but they do not control them well enough to monitor and analyze the structure of what they write There is of course nothing wrong with writing passives and negatives and adjectives and adverbs I m not nitpicking the authors writing style White in particular often wrote beautifully and his old professor would have been proud of him What s wrong is that the grammatical advice proffered in Elements is so misplaced and inaccurate that counterexamples often show up in the authors own prose on the very same page Some of the claims about syntax are plainly false despite being respected by the authors For example Chapter IV in an unnecessary piece of bossiness says that the split infinitive should be avoided unless the writer wishes to place unusual stress on the adverb The bossiness is unnecessary because the split infinitive has always been grammatical and does not need to be avoided The authors actually knew that Strunk s original version never even mentioned split infinitives White added both the above remark and the further reference in Chapter V admitting that some infinitives seem to improve on being split But what interests me here is the descriptive claim about stress on the adverb It is completely wrong Tucking the adverb in before the verb actually de emphasizes the adverb so a sentence like The dean s statements tend to completely polarize the faculty places the stress on polarizing the faculty The way to stress the completeness of the polarization would be to write The dean s statements tend to polarize the faculty completely This is actually implied by an earlier section of the book headed Place the emphatic words of a sentence at the end yet White still gets it wrong He feels there are circumstances where the split infinitive is not quite right but he is simply not competent to spell out his intuition correctly in grammatical terms An entirely separate kind of grammatical inaccuracy in Elements is the mismatch with readily available evidence Simple experiments which students could perform for themselves using downloaded classic texts from sources like http gutenberg org show that Strunk and White preferred to base their grammar claims on intuition and prejudice rather than established literary usage Consider the explicit instruction With none use the singular verb when the word means no one or not one Is this a rule to be trusted Let s investigate Try searching the script of Oscar Wilde s The Importance of Being Earnest 1895 for none of us There is one example of it as a subject None of us are perfect spoken by the learned Dr Chasuble It has plural agreement Download and search Bram Stoker s Dracula 1897 It contains no cases of none of us with singular inflected verbs but one that takes the plural I think that none of us were surprised when we were asked to see Mrs Harker a little before the time of sunset Examine the text of Lucy Maud Montgomery s popular novel Anne of Avonlea 1909 There are no singular examples but one with the plural None of us ever do It seems to me that the stipulation in Elements is totally at variance not just with modern conversational English but also with literary usage back when Strunk was teaching and White was a boy Is the intelligent student supposed to believe that Stoker Wilde and Montgomery didn t know how to write Did Strunk or White check even a single book to see what the evidence suggested Did they have any evidence at all for the claim that the cases with plural agreement are errors I don t think so There are many other cases of Strunk and White s being in conflict with readily verifiable facts about English Consider the claim that a sentence should not begin with however in its connective adverb sense when the meaning is nevertheless Searching for however at the beginnings of sentences and however elsewhere reveals that good authors alternate between placing the adverb first and placing it after the subject The ratios vary Mark Liberman of the University of Pennsylvania checked half a dozen of Mark Twain s books and found roughly seven instances of however at the beginning of a sentence for each three placed after the subject whereas in five selected books by Henry James the ratio was one to 15 In Dracula I found a ratio of about one to five The evidence cannot possibly support a claim that however at the beginning of a sentence should be eschewed Strunk and White are just wrong about the facts of English syntax The copy editor s old bugaboo about not using which to introduce a restrictive relative clause is also an instance of failure to look at the evidence Elements as revised by White endorses that rule But 19th century authors whose prose was never forced through a 20th century prescriptive copy editing mill generally alternated between which and that There seems to be a subtle distinction in meaning related to whether new information is being introduced There was never a period in the history of English when which at the beginning of a restrictive relative clause was an error In fact as Jan Freeman of The Boston Globe noted in her blog The Word Strunk himself used which in restrictive relative clauses White not only added the anti which rule to the book but also revised away the counterexamples that were present in his old professor s original text It s sad Several generations of college students learned their grammar from the uninformed bossiness of Strunk and White and the result is a nation of educated people who know they feel vaguely anxious and insecure whenever they write however or than me or was or which but can t tell you why The land of the free in the grip of The Elements of Style So I won t be spending the month of April toasting 50 years of the overopinionated and underinformed little book that put so many people in this unhappy state of grammatical angst I ve spent too much of my scholarly life studying English grammar in a serious way English syntax is a deep and interesting subject It is much too important to be reduced to a bunch of trivial don t do this prescriptions by a pair of idiosyncratic bumblers who can t even tell when they ve broken their own misbegotten rules Geoffrey K Pullum is head of linguistics and English language at the University of Edinburgh and co author with Rodney Huddleston of The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language Cambridge University Press 2002 http chronicle com Section The Chronicle Review Volume 55 Issue 32 Page B15 E mail Print Share Share Delicious Digg Facebook Linked In Mixx Reddit Twitter Yahoo Buzz Writing Awkward Prose Students Training Leaders for Today Work Study Experience Is the Best Teacher Most Popular Most Viewed Most E Mailed Most Commented Among the Evangelicals The Shadow Scholar Colleges to Confront Deep Cutbacks The Elements of Clunk Keeping Up With Journals 10 Tips on How to Write Less Badly Singing the Team Spirit Blues Colleges to Confront Deep Cutbacks College 2 0 6 Top Smartphone Apps to Improve Teaching Research and Your Life A Move Abroad Travels and Travails The Most Important Disease You Probably Never Heard Of Denis Dutton Founder of Arts Letters Daily Dies Monotheism was a Civilizational Advance Because _______ Tolerance Risk and Reward Boring Past Coverage Who s Afraid of Strunk and White May 22 2009 Of Grammatophobia January3 2003 The Role of Grammar in College Curriculums January 31 2003 Strunk and White Endure June1 2009 Microsoft Word Grammar Checker Are No Good Scholar Conclude April 15 2005 Recent News Advocates of Adjunct Union at East West U Score a Big Win By Peter Schmidt Five part time instructors at the university in Illinois whowere denied contract renewals while leading a union drive lastsummer get back pay and job protections Students From Caribbean Med Schools Head for New York Angering Some Local Programs By Katherine Mangan The allocation of seats is unfair critics say with some poorlysupervised students landing sought after slots IRS Steps Up Scrutiny of Colleges and Other Nonprofit Groups By Eric Frazier With more workers to oversee charitable organizations theagency is focusing on loans to officials unpaid employment taxes and the results of a compliance questionnaire Campus Viewpoint Information provided by participating institution In the words of the founding president of the UAE Sheikh Zayedbin Sultan Al 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Le texte contient 146 phrases.
Le texte contient 120 virgules.
Le nombre moyen de caractères par mot est 6.
Le nombre moyen de mots par phrase est 20.

Mots qui n'apparaissent qu'une fois sont :

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